# Heat conduction

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Conduction is heat transfer across a stationary medium, either solid or fluid. For an electrically nonconducting solid, conduction is attributed to atomic activity in the form of lattice vibration, while the mechanism of conduction in an electrically-conducting solid is a combination of lattice vibration and translational motion of electrons. Heat conduction in a liquid or gas is due to the random motion and interaction of the molecules. For most engineering problems, it is impractical and unnecessary to track the motion of individual molecules and electrons, which may instead be described using the macroscopic averaged temperature.

• Fundamentals of Heat Conduction
Mechanism of heat conduction, Fourier's law and thermal conductivity.
finite slabs, hillow cylinders, hollow spheres, extended surface, bioheat equation, two-dimensional conduction, conduction from burried object
Lumped analysis, one-dimensional transient conduction in finite slabs, cylinders, spheres, semi-infinite body, and multi-dimensional conduction.
Mass diffusion, and convective mass transfer.
Black body,emissivity and absorptivity, configuration factor, radiation heat transfer in enclosure, radiation with participating media and solar radiation.

4.2 309 4.2.1 One Dimensional Systems 309 4.2.2 Multidimensional Systems 325 4.3 Unsteady Heat Conduction 337 4.3.1 Lumped Analysis 337 4.3.2 One Dimensional Transient Systems 339 4.3.3 Multidimensional Transient Heat Conduction Systems 360 4.4 Numerical Simulation of Heat Conduction Problems 364 4.4.1 One-Dimensional Steady-State Conduction 365 4.4.2 One-Dimensional Transient Conduction 369 4.4.3 Multidimensional Transient Conduction 373 4.5 Melting and Solidification 376 4.5.1 Introduction 376 4.5.2 Exact Solution 381 4.5.3 Integral Approximate Solution 390 4.5.4 Numerical Simulation 405 4.6 Microscale Heat Conduction 416 4.6.1 Extensions of Classic Model 416 4.6.2 Two-Step Model 418 4.6.3 Microscale Phase Change 421