Internal forced convection

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*[[Basics of Internal Forced Convection|Basics]]
*[[Basics of Internal Forced Convection|Basics]]
*[[Fully-developed flow heat transfer]]
*[[Fully-developed flow and heat transfer]]
*[[Thermally developing laminar flow]]
*[[Thermally developing laminar flow]]
*[[Combined hydrodynamic and thermal entrance effect]]
*[[Combined hydrodynamic and thermal entrance effect]]

Revision as of 08:49, 30 June 2010

Internal heat and mass transfer have significant applications in a variety of technologies, including heat exchangers and electronic cooling. Internal convective heat and mass transfer can be classified as either forced or natural convection. An initial simple approach to internal convective heat transfer is to utilize the dimensional analysis presented in Chapter 1 to obtain important parameters and dimensionless numbers for the steady laminar flow of an incompressible fluid in a convectional tube, i.e.,

h = f(k,μ,cp,ρ,u,D,xT)


The local heat transfer coefficient is a function of the fluid properties (viscosity, μ; thermal conductivity, k; density, ρ; specific heat, cp), geometry (D), temperature (ΔT), and flow velocity (u). In dimensionless form,

\text{Nu}=g(\operatorname{Re},\Pr ,x/D)


The above relation indicates that the local Nusselt number for flow in a circular tube is a function of the Reynolds number, Prandtl number, and x/D. The goal of this chapter is to develop the heat and mass transfer coefficients for various internal flow configurations under different operating conditions.