Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer

Manuscript Preparation Guidelines

The typesetting and layout requirements related to manuscript submission to Global Digital Central are provided here. All manuscripts must be the correct format to be accepted for publication. Manuscripts must be written in clear, concise and grammatically correct English (either American or British style but not a mixture of both). Papers that do not conform to these requirements will be returned to the authors without review.

If you are using MS Word to format your final paper, you can copy from your manuscripts and paste to the template in MS Word to prepare the final version of your paper. For those authors who are using LaTex to format the final version of their paper, you can use the template in LaTex to format your paper. Please also make sure that this guideline is closely followed.


  • All submissions must be 15 pages or less in length for an original research paper or 20 pages for a review paper.
  • Page size must be 8.5 × 11-inches (216 × 279 mm2, “letter” size). Do not use A4 size (210 × 297mm2).
  • The margins on the left, right, and bottom must be 12.7 mm (0.5 inch) while the margin on top should be 19mm (0.75 inch), including tables and figures.
  • Single space your text.
  • Use double-column layout (except abstract) with both left and right margins justified (i.e., flush with the left and right margins).
  • Indent all paragraphs by 6.4 mm (0.25 inch) except those following a section heading. Do not insert an extra space between paragraphs of text.
  • Equations, tables, and figures should be separated from the surrounding text by additional space above and below.
  • Do not “widow” or “orphan” text; make sure that headings are on the same page as the text that follows them, and do not begin a page with the last line of a paragraph. This also applies to titles or notes attached to tables.
  • No more than one fifth of any page (except the last page) should be empty space.


  • The font for the entire paper should be Times New Roman.
  • Title – 16 pt. boldface.
  • Authors’ names – 11 pt.
  • Authors’ affiliations and addresses – 9 pt., italic.
  • Abstract Heading – 11 pt., ALL CAPITAL, boldface.
  • Abstract text – 9 pt.
  • Heading 1 – 10 pt. ALL CAPITAL
  • Heading 2 - 10 pt, boldface, and flush left
  • Main Body– 9 pt.
  • quations – 9 pt.
  • Footnotes – 9 pt.
  • Tables, graphs and figures – Text accompanying graphs, figures and tables should be no smaller than 8 pt.


  • The SI unit should be used throughout the paper.


  • The font color for the majority of the text should be black and the hyperlink should be blue. Color figures, pictures, images, and graphs are permitted and encouraged.


  • High-resolution figures (300 dpi) should be used.
  • Tables and figures should appear in the text near where they are referenced in the text.
  • Use at least 8 pt. font size in tables, figures and graphs.
  • Figures, graphs and tables should be easily readable when viewed on a normal 12 inch computer screen or printed on a regular size paper.
  • The figure captions should be placed directly below the figure. If your figure has multiple parts, include the labels “(a),” “(b),” “(c)” below each part but above the figure caption.
  • All figures and tables must be cited in the text. When citing a figure in the text, use the abbreviation “Fig.” except at the beginning of a sentence. However, do not abbreviate “Table.”
  • All figures and tables must be numbered sequentially with relation to other figures and tables.
  • Do not leave large empty space below any figure or table.


  • Roman letters used in equations as variables must be italicized. However, Roman letters used as dimensionless number should not be italicized. For example, use Re, not Re, for Reynolds number.
  • Subscripts and superscripts must be a smaller font size than the main text.
  • Short equations should be typed inline.
  • Longer or more complicated equations must be typed separately from the text and numbered consecutively. The equation numbers should be placed in parentheses flush right.
  • While Equation Editor in MS Word can be used to type equations, MathType is recommended to type equations.
  • Insert a blank line before and after equations.
  • Avoid symbols and notation in unusual fonts. This will not only enhance the clarity of the manuscript, but it will also help ensure that it displays correctly on the reader's screen and prints correctly.

DOI and Article ID

  • Global Digital Central uses the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) System for identifying each paper published in its journals. Please do not add the DOI to your article as it will be assigned by Global Digital Central and imprinted in your PDF file before the paper is published.
  • Instead of using page numbers, all journals published by Global Digital Central use Article ID number. This new approach allows us to build an issue one article at a time while retaining the ability to segment tables of contents by article type or subject area allowing the article to be published as soon as the final version of the paper is approved by the Editors-in-Chief. Please do not add Article ID numbers or page numbers to your paper, as they will be determined by Global Digital Central.


  • All references should be listed at the end of the text alphabetically based on the authors’ names and the year the reference was published, instead of in the order of citation.
  • All references should be in 9-point font.
  • The references must be linked to CrossRef by listing DOI below each reference (if available).
  • The DOI of the reference can be obtained by using the Simple-Text Query Form from CrossRef available at
  • The prefix "" must be added before the DOIs so that the readers can click the DOI to access the reference. For example, if the DOI of an article is 10.1016/0017-9310(90)90172-Q, it should be displayed as
  • To cite a reference, the last name(s) of author(s) followed by the year of publication in parentheses. If the reference has one or two authors, spell out the names of all authors (e.g., Braga and Viskanta, 1990). If the reference has three or more authors, refer to the reference by using the first author’s name plus et al. in italic (e.g., Zhigilei et al., 2004). Please see the following examples:
    • Incropera, F.P., and DeWitt, D.P., Bergman, T.L., and Lavine, A.S., 2007, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 6th ed., John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
    • Braga, S.L., and Viskanta, R., 1990, “Solidification of a Binary Solution on a Cold Isothermal Surface,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 33(4), 745-754.

    • Zhigilei, L. V., Ivanov, D. S., Leveugle, E., Sadigh, B., and Bringa, E. M., 2004, "Computer Modeling of Laser Melting and Spallation of Metal Targets," Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5448, SPIE.
  • If multiple references need to be cited in one parenthesis, separate them by a semicolon (e.g., Incropera et al., 2007; Braga and Viskanta, 1990)
  • Unpublished works or personal communications should NOT be used as references as the reader cannot check them.
  • For papers published in journals, full journal names should be typed using italic font. The volume number should be typed using boldface (without Vol. in front) and the issue number should be put in parenthesis (not boldface), followed by the range of page numbers (without pp. in front).
  • If the journal uses CID or Article ID, the CID or Article ID should be used to replace page numbers. For example:
    • Zhang, Y., and Chen, J. K., 2008, “Ultrafast Melting and Resolidification of Gold Particle Irradiated by Pico- to Femtosecond Lasers,” Journal of Applied Physics, 104, 054910.
  • For papers presented in a conference or symposium, include the title of the paper, the name of the sponsoring society in full, and the date. For example:
    • Carey, V.P. and Wemhoff, A.P., 2005, “Disjoining Pressure Effects in Ultra-Thin Liquid Films in Micropassages-Comparison of Thermodynamic Theory with Predictions of Molecular Dynamics Simulations,” IMECE2005-80234, Proceedings of 2005 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Orlando, FL.
  • References to electronic data available only from personal Web sites or commercial, academic, or government sites where there is no commitment to archiving the data are not allowed in the reference list.
  • Articles from Thermal-FluidsPedia can be cited in the following format: Thermal-FluidsPedia editor, 2010, "Melting and Solidification," Thermal-FluidsPedia, (accessed April 15, 2010).

ISSN: 2151-8629